March 21, 2019

Abstract, Socio-environmental Conflict, Political Settlements, and Mining Governance: A Cross-Border Comparison, El Salvador and Honduras

:::::: Abstract ::::::



Socio-environmental Conflict, Political Settlements, and Mining Governance: A Cross-Border Comparison, El Salvador and Honduras



by Anthony Bebbington, Benjamin Fash, John Rogan



During the mid-2000s, Honduras and El Salvador implemented mining moratoria. By 2017 El Salvador had legislated a globally unprecedented ban on all forms of metal mining, while in Honduras mining was expanding aggressively. These neighboring countries present the explanatory challenge of understanding the distinct trajectories of mining policy and politics. These divergent pathways can be explained by the interactions between the political economy of subsoil resources, national political settlements, and the ways in which diverse actors have taken advantage (or not) of openings in these settlements.




CONTINUE READING THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave



SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave

March 19, 2019

Abstract, The Frustrated Nationalization of Hydrocarbons and the Plunder of Bolivia

:::::: Abstract ::::::



The Frustrated Nationalization of Hydrocarbons and the Plunder of Bolivia


by Jeppe Krommes-Ravnsmed



Evo Morales came to power in Bolivia after the gas war and a subsequent rebellion that overthrew two presidents in 2003 and 2005. However, the promised nationalization of hydrocarbons remained on paper, and a new extractivist offensive was launched that deepened processes of accumulation by dispossession. Plunder, environmental devastation, and recolonization of indigenous territories have increased because of different factors that are dialectically interrelated: (1) the 2006 oil contracts, which allowed transnationals to retain a dominant position in the sector; (2) the challenge of finding new gas reserves to maintain the current export volume; (3) the country’s substantial dependence on hydrocarbon revenues to maintain public expenditure levels, given that the productive matrix remains unchanged; and (4) the political degeneration of the Movimiento al Socialismo. However, there is no political and discursive coherence: the government conceals its policy behind a revolutionary discourse.




CONTINUE READING THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave



SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave

March 14, 2019

Abstract, Financialization, Institutional Reform, and Structural Change in the Bolivian Boom

:::::: Abstract ::::::



Financialization, Institutional Reform, and Structural Change in the Bolivian Boom 

by Alfredo Macías Vázquez and Jorge García-Arias



Since nationalizing its hydrocarbon industry, Bolivia has articulated an ambitious strategy to promote structural change in its economy. Despite positive trends in macroeconomic indicators, the increase in fiscal revenues derived from the export of raw materials has not translated into structural transformation. Although the Bolivian government has broken with classical extractivism, nationalization and state intervention have not been sufficient to produce changes. The institutional control imposed on hydrocarbon revenue by financialization inhibits structural change and threatens the long-term sustainability of recent improvements in social indicators.




CONTINUE READING THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave



SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave

March 13, 2019

Political Report # 1389 Tiny Costa Rica Has a Green New Deal, Too. It Matters for the Whole Planet.






By  Somini Sengupta and Alexander Villegas
New York Times


SAN JOSÉ, Costa Rica - It’s a green big deal for a tiny sliver of a country. Costa Rica, population 5 million, wants to wean itself from fossil fuels by 2050, and the chief evangelist of the idea is a 38-year-old urban planner named Claudia Dobles who also happens to be the first lady.
Every country will have to aspire to something similar, scientists say, if the world is to avert the most dire consequences of global warming. And while Costa Rica’s carbon footprint is tiny compared to other countries, Ms. Dobles has a higher goal in mind: Getting rid of fossil fuels would show the world that a small country can be a leader on an awesome problem and improve the health and well-being of its citizens in the bargain.
It would, she said, combat a “sense of negativity and chaos” in the face of global warming. “We need to start providing answers.”
Costa Rica’s green bid, though fraught with challenges, has a head start. Electricity comes largely from renewable sources already - chiefly hydropower, but also wind, solar and geothermal energy. The country has doubled its forest cover in the last 30 years, after decades of deforestation, so that half of its land surface is now covered with trees. That’s a huge carbon sink and a huge draw for tourists. Also, climate change is not a divisive political issue.
Now, if its decarbonization strategy succeeds, it could provide a road map to others, especially developing countries, showing how democratically elected leaders can grow their economies without relying on polluting sources of energy. But if it doesn’t work, in a country so small and politically stable, it would have equally profound consequences.
“If we can’t pull it off by 2050, it’s likely no other country can pull it off,” said Francisco Alpízar, an economist at the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center in Turrialba, Costa Rica and a climate adviser to the government. “That would be really bad.”

March 12, 2019

Abstract, Extractivist Geographies: Mining and Development in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Peru

:::::: Abstract ::::::



Extractivist Geographies: Mining and Development in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Peru


by Matthew Himley


In Peru, development dreams have not infrequently been hitched to the expansion of mining and other extractive activities. While the Peruvian state pursued strategies to stimulate mining expansion during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the geography of capitalist mining that emerged mapped poorly onto the national development imaginaries of the country’s elites. State-led efforts to mobilize subsurface resources in the service of national-level development conflicted with the tendency for extractive economies to exhibit uneven and discontinuous spatialities. Attention to the long-run unevenness of extractive investment in global resource frontiers such as Peru promises to deepen understandings of both world environmental history and the contemporary politics of resource extractivism.



CONTINUE READING THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave



SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave

March 7, 2019

Abstract, Sovereignty and Capitalist Accumulation in Brazil’s Primary Sector

:::::: Abstract ::::::



Sovereignty and Capitalist Accumulation in Brazil’s Primary Sector

by Linda Farthing and Nicole Fabricant


Sovereignty conditions all aspects of the extractive process. That it underpins the dynamics of capitalist accumulation is apparent in the power that governments have to classify space, alienate certain areas for investment, and charge rents. A review of the large-scale land acquisitions and changes in the mining and oil and gas industries in Brazil from 2002 to 2016 shows that initiatives intended to curtail foreign investment actually stimulate foreign enterprises to engage in novel forms of capitalist accumulation.



CONTINUE READING THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave



SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave

March 4, 2019

Introduction, Open Veins Revisited: The New Extractivism in Latin America, Part 2

:::::: Introduction ::::::



Open Veins Revisited: The New Extractivism in Latin America, Part 2

by Linda Farthing and Nicole Fabricant


This second issue on the current boom in extractivism reverberating throughout Latin America expands the discussion of the economic, social, and political impacts of expanded extractivism and the perpetuation of Latin America’s status as a source of raw materials for industries located elsewhere that was developed in the first collection of articles on this topic (LAP 45 [5]) . Reflecting the wide range of topics related to extractivism, certain themes from the first issue find a home here, ranging from national policy making to indigenous and women’s rights and environmental justice.



CONTINUE READING THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave



SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave
SaveSave